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GCN : June 2013
[30 YEARS: A TECH TIM 1986 1991 1996 1982 U.S. stages a proto-cyber- attack, reprogramming computer equipment (which was being bought through a front company) intended for a Soviet gas pipeline, causing the pipeline to explode. 1986 A researcher at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory discovers an international effort to copy information from U.S. government, military and academic computers connected to the Arpanet. 1988 The worm turns up: A Cornell University student creates the first computer worm, which cripples 10 percent of the 88,000 comput- ers on the Arpanet. 1990 Arpanet becomes the opera- tional network known as the Internet, with about 2.6 million people around the globe connected. 1994 In response to concern over Internet security, Netscape develops Secure Sockets Layer encryption to secure online transactions. 1995 Utah passes the Utah Digital Sig- nature Act of 1995, becoming the first state to promote use of public-key infrastructure technology for digitally signing documents. 1982 GRiD Compass 1100, one of the first laptops, launches. At $8,150, the main buyer was the U.S. government. 1983 TheDynaTAC 8000X, the first truly "mobile" radio- telephone, makes the first commercial wireless call (the very first mobile call was placed on a DynaTAC 10 years earlier.) 1994 Bluetooth, created by telecom vendor Ericsson, as a wireless alternative to RS-232 data cables, creating per- sonal area networks (PANs) with high levels of security. 1981 SMS for texting is introduced. 1992 Apple introduces the term PDA. 1996 A Humvee-mount- ed comm system delivers asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) to the battlefield. 1997 Marine Corps tests the Microsoft Win- dows CE 1.0 operating system on what is called "Marine-resistant handheld computers. " 1983 IBM releases DB2, its latest relational database management system using structure query language (both developed in the 1970s) that would become a mainstay in govern- ment. 1985 Object-oriented programming (OOP) languag- es, such as Eiffel, start to catch on. Although OOP dates to the 1960s, it would over the next decade become the dominant programming language. 1990 Archie, the first tool used for searching on the Inter- net, is created. 1991 The World Wide Web, using HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP) and the HyperText Markup Language (HTML), appears as a publicly available service for shar- ing information. 1993 The W3Catalog, the World Wide Web's first primitive search engine, is released. 1995 Sun releases the Java plat- form, with the Java language first invented in 1991. 1997 Michael Cox and David Ellsworth of NASA's Ames Research Center publish a paper on visualization which they discuss the challenges of working with data sets too large for the computing resources at hand. 1998 Carlo Strozzi develops an open-source rela- tional database and calls it NoSQL. 1982 The first Ethernet adapt- er card for the IBM PC released, introducing fast, inexpensive con- nections that would enable cloud computing. 1989 Software Tool & Die founded, first public dialup Internet Service Provider (ISP) and "still proud to be the best. " 1992 In a $500 million deal, FAA undertakes wholesale IT outsourc- ing to Electronic Data Systems Corp. under the Computer Resources Nucleus (CORN) program. Navy launches IT-2 network to deliver fast Ethernet to 270,000 users worldwide, with browsers, continu- ous TCP/IP connections. 1996 2 to build secure, global f Eh 270 000 1997 The term "cloud computing" is coined by University of Texas professor Ramnath Chellappa 1999 Salesforce.com founded in San Francisco apartment. 1982 IBM intro- duces model 5150 personal computer, pushing widespread deployment of desktop IT throughout govern- ment agencies. 1988 IBM introduces Application System/400, a mid-range computer designed for small and intermediate organizations, what will become one of the world's most popular depart- mental computers. 1991 IBM intros 3390 Direct Access Storage Device (DASD), 40 percent faster and capable of storing as much data as its predecessor, in one-third the space. 1999 VMware Workstation, first product to allow users to run multiple instances of x86 operating systems on a single PC. 1986 MIPS and IBM release first reduced instruction set (RISC) computer, showing that 80 percent of a computer operations run on 20 percent of its instructions set.