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GCN : June 2013
MELINE] Three decades in the evolution of today's key public-sector technologies 2001 2006 2011 CYBER 2000 NIST chooses the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) for classified information; it's formally approved in 2001. 2003 DHS begins oper- ations, creates the National Cyber Security Division. 2006 A Veterans Affairs Depart- ment employee loses a laptop in a burglary and with it the personal information on 26.5 million active duty troops and veterans. 2008 An employee at the U.S. Central Command put a flash drive into a laptop and accidentally unleashed "Operation Buckshot Yankee the worst breach of U.S. computers to date. 2010 U.S. Cyber Command goes opera- tional. Stuxnet, the first weaponized malware because of its targeted nature, throws a wrench into Iran's nuclear program by disrupting centri- fuges used for uranium enrichment. MOBILE 1998 Iridium SSC, Iridium communications service was launched on November 1, 1998 and went into Chapter 11 bankruptcy nine months later. DISA had invested. 1999 Congress designates 911 as the universal emergency number of wireline and wireless service. 2002 The first RIM Black- Berry is released. 2004 Sunnyvale, Cali- fornia becomes the first Wi-Fi enabled city in the United States. 2005 Hurricane Katrina slams into New Orleans on Aug. 29, changing emergency communications and response forever. 2007 iPhone launches, spurring dramatic handset innova- tion. 2009 Census deploys Win- dows Mobile for field data collection. 2010 Apple introduces the iPad, another revolution in portable computing. 2012 The Commercial Mobile Alerting System, a national alert system that sends emergency messages to mobile phones. 2013 NASA launches smart-phone based satellites. 2001 Tim Berners-Lee, inventor of the World Wide Web, coins the term "Semantic Web, " a "dream" for machine-to-machine interactions. 2002 In wake of the Sept. 11, 2001, attacks, DARPA begins work on its Total Information Awareness System, combining biometrics, language processing, predictive modeling and database technologies. 2003 The amount of digital information created by computers and other data systems in this one year surpasses the amount of information cre- ated in all of human history prior to 2003. 2005 Apache Hadoop, destined to become a foundation of government big data efforts, is created. 2008 The number of devices connected to the Internet exceeds the world's population. 2011 IBM's Watson scans and analyzes 4 tera- bytes (200 million pages) of data in seconds to defeat two human players on "Jeopardy!" 2012 The Obama administration announces the Big Data Research and Development Initiative, consisting of 84 programs in six departments. BIG DATA LOUD 1998 VMware founded, introduces software providing completely virtualized set of hardware to a guest operating system 2000 Government agencies begin developing computer "grids, " an open-source networking technology that lets users share resources in a manner not subject to central control. 2001 Interior Department becomes one of several agencies to experiment with adopting the application service provider (ASP) model for deliver- ing applications to workforce. 2005 EPA announces project to use grid computing for air quality monitoring, a sign that government acceptance of col- laborative networks is widening. 2007 File hosting and synchronization service Dropbox Inc., founded by MIT student. CL 2010 OMB issues "cloud first" mandate, requiring agencies to identify three services to move to the cloud and retire associated legacy systems. 2012 Energy Department sets up YourCloud to broker secure cloud ser- vices for agency and national labs. DATA CENTERS 2005 Agriculture Depart- ment recommends moving National Finance Center from New Orleans because of hurricane risk. 2006 Texas awards $863 million, 10-year, contract to IBM Corp. to build data center in state capital of Austin. State projects savings of $159 million over first seven years. 2007 Cisco unveils unified comput- ing system, fusing computing, network, storage and virtualization into a single system . 2009 Microsoft builds data center in Northlake, Ill., providing the capacity for as many as 440,000 Windows servers on the first floor alone, 1o times for then the 40,000 servers convention data centers can hold. 2010 Federal CIO Vivek Kundra directs agencies to make an inventory of their IT assets in preparation for the largest data center consolidation project in history. 2011 Data center research organization Uptime Institute reports that 36 percent of the large companies it surveyed expect to exhaust IT capacity within the next 18 months. 1988 2002 Data centers account for 1.5 percent of total U.S. power consumption, growing 10 percent annually.