by clicking on the page. A slider will appear, allowing you to adjust your zoom level. Return to the original size by clicking on the page again.
the page around when zoomed in by dragging it.
the zoom using the slider on the top right.
by clicking on the zoomed-in page.
by entering text in the search field and click on "In This Issue" or "All Issues" to search the current issue or the archive of back issues respectively.
by clicking on thumbnails to select pages, and then press the print button.
this publication and page.
displays a table of sections with thumbnails and descriptions.
displays thumbnails of every page in the issue. Click on a page to jump.
allows you to browse through every available issue.
GCN : December 2013
"CORTANA" is Microsoft s codename for a personal, virtual assistant, like Apple s Siri. Microsoft needs a smart personal assistant for its Windows phone, but for our purposes, we will dig into what fuels Cortana s intelligence and how your organization can benefit by leveraging the same techniques. Behind Cortana is the Satori knowledge graph that cur- rently powers the Bing search engine. A knowledge graph is a data structure that stores names, places and things as the nodes of the graph, and the relationships between them as the links of the graph. Even Web pages are a form of in- memory graphs (called trees). Knowledge graphs are also related to social graphs popularized by Facebook and Google+. The Satori knowl- edge graph uses the W3C Re- source Description Framework (RDF) standard and has over 300 million nodes and 800 mil- lion edges. RDF is the same standard used for linked data and is well suited to creating knowledge graphs, as every RDF state- ment follows the pattern of Subject, Predicate and Object, where the Subject and Object are nodes in the graph and the Predicate is the edge between them. Storing both knowledge and open data using linked data enables a new form of knowledge management for smart organizations. For the federal government, it s a way to head o the impending knowledge management crisis. The average age of today s civil servant is 47, and about 30 percent of the federal work- force will be eligible to retire by 2016, according to the Government Accountability O ce. Now that the recession seems to be receding, the wave of retirements has begun, with a 21 percent increase over last year. That means organization- al knowledge and information is literally walking out the door unless you have knowl- edge management systems augmented with a knowledge graph to capture and organize what retirees know. So, how do you create your own knowledge graph? Begin with linked data and use it to organize and publish your data sets to data.gov. You create linked data by following four simple rules: 1. Use URIs as names for things. A Universal Resource Identifier (URI) identifies a resource by name or location (or both). There are two types of URIs: a Uniform Resource Name (URN) and a Uniform Resource Locator (URL). We are most familiar with URLs as they are what we put in the browser to retrieve a Web page, specifying the network location and the protocol for retrieving. A URN, on the other hand, defines a name for some- thing but does not describe how to retrieve it. 2. Use HTTP URIs so that people can look up those names. Instead of using a URN, use a URL so that the data referred to can be simply retrieved over the web using the HTTP protocol. 3. Provide useful informa- tion in the URI. If a URL identifies a topic, at the end of that topic provide a data file that describes attributes of that concept in a standard format. The New York Times, for example, publishes RDF files describing the topics in the paper available at data. nytimes.com. 4. Include links in the data to other URIs so users can discover more things. Your concepts will refer to other concepts in a chain (or graph) of things. An important future form of authority will be the number of graphs that link to a concept, especially for the inherently governmental con- cepts where the government acts as the authoritative "back- stop" for such a concept---such as concepts like "unemploy- ment rate" from the Bureau of Labor Statistics. Once you re familiar with how to create linked data, you can move up the lad- der of techniques to social graphs, knowledge graphs and intelligent assistants. A social graph is really just a type of knowledge graph focused on people. Using the familiar triad of "peoples, places and things," you move from creating a social graph to completing the triad with interlinked knowl- edge graphs on the places and things of your organization. After creating your knowl- edge graphs you can expand them organically by linking to concepts in your IT systems and slowly integrate them into the daily activities of your organization. This growing knowledge base can then leverage virtual assistants (similar to Cortana) to ask and answer questions about your organization s knowledge. You could even be able to access and leverage that knowledge via mobile applications to truly give your employees knowl- edge at their fingertips. • --- Michael C. Daconta (mdaconta@incadencecorp. com) is the Vice President of Advanced Technology at InCa- dence Strategic Solutions and the former Metadata Program Manager for the Homeland Security Department. His new book is entitled, "The Great Cloud Migration: Your Road- map to Cloud Computing, Big Data and Linked Data." CAN CORTANA HELP SOLVE THE COMING FEDERAL RETIREMENT CRISIS? REALITY CHECK BY MICHAEL DACONTA Storing both knowledge and open data using linked data enables a new form of knowledge management for smart organizations. 16 GCN DECEMBER 2013 • GCN.COM